Superman titles
Columbia, 15 Chapters, 1948. Starring Kirk Alyn, Noel Neill, Tommy Bond, Carol Forman, Pierre Watkin, George Meeker, Charles Quigley, Jack Ingram.

The infant son of a brilliant scientist from a planet of “supermen” called Krypton is rocketed to Earth just before a natural disaster wipes out his home world. After arriving on Earth, the baby is raised by a farm couple named Kent, who teach him to use his superhuman powers–invulnerability, super-strength, x-ray vision, the ability to fly–for the good of humanity. Upon reaching manhood, the Kents’ adopted son, named Clark (Kirk Alyn), lands a job as a reporter on the Daily Planet newspaper in Metropolis, using the position to keep in touch with crime and disaster–and battling said crimes and disasters in the secret identity of “Superman.” The mysterious hero soon becomes so famous and respected that the US government asks him to guard the valuable “Reducer Ray,” a destructive weapon more powerful than the atomic bomb. Unfortunately for Superman, a master criminal called the Spider Lady (Carol Forman) has set her sights on the ray; when a meteoric fragment of “Kryptonite”–a mineral element from Superman’s home planet that renders him powerless–comes into her hands, even the mighty Man of Steel will have a difficult time keeping the Reducer Ray safe.

As the first live-action adaptation of a still-famous comics property, Superman has received much more attention than almost any other post-war Columbia serial–both from serial buffs and from comics devotees. However, much of the aforementioned attention has been negative; a large percentage of both serial and comics aficionados loathe the serial, largely for its inadequate special effects and other shortcomings common to all Sam Katzman-produced Columbia outings. The serial also has a somewhat smaller following of fans–and, despite my usual dislike of Katzman’s serials, I have to come down solidly on the side of this latter group. While Superman’s production values are frequently embarrassing, its script is much better-written, its plotting much more skillful, its pacing much faster, and its cast much more energetic than those of most of its Columbia contemporaries.

While the screenplay of Superman contains some minor holes (the Spider Lady’s inexplicable decision against killing Lois in Chapter Five, Clark Kent’s credulity-defying ability to see through makeup in a photograph), it’s still vastly superior to the average Columbia script, and indeed to most post-war serial screenplays. The writing team–George Plympton, Joseph Poland, Arthur Hoerl, Lewis Clay, and Royal Cole handle the lengthy “prologue” scenes with deliberation, chronicling the downfall of Krypton, Superman’s childhood, and his arrival at the Daily Planet with the care they deserve instead of rushing into the duel with the Spider Lady–who doesn’t even appear till the third chapter (some of this material, particularly the Krypton segment, was derived from the 1942 Superman novel by George Lowther). The only weak spot in the early going is the demise of Kent’s parents, which is handled with a one-line voiceover by Knox Manning; if the writers were so set on avoiding potential grimness, they should simply have left the Kents alive and not shuffled them off so unceremoniously.

Above left: Jor-El (Nelson Leigh, standing) faces the Kryptonian Council. Above right: Clark Kent first learns of his origins from his foster father (Ed Cassidy).

Once the main plot begins in Chapter Three, the writers manage to keep the ensuing battle between Superman and the Spider Lady from becoming a mere series of repetitive skirmishes over the Reducer Ray–both by shifting the villainess’ focus from capturing the Ray itself to capturing its inventor Dr. Graham halfway through the serial, and by introducing the Kryptonite subplot (the discovery of the meteor’s effect on Superman by both hero and villains is handled excellently). They also lend further interest to the plot with a smaller but important thread, the Spider Lady’s recruitment of a crooked scientist named Dr. Hackett (Charles Quigley) to help her utilize both the Kryptonite and the Ray. The villains’ efforts to help Hackett escape the police occupy a chapter in themselves, and the scientist’s eventual joining of the gang in turn gives rise to tension between the Spider Lady and her new, dangerously smart colleague; their rivalry doesn’t devolve into boring villainous infighting, but it does have a crucial effect on plot developments in the final chapters–a fine example of logical and cohesive writing that would be notable even in a Republic or Universal serial, and is especially remarkable in a later Columbia outing.

The script is also enlivened by its vivid characterizations; the writers perhaps deserve less credit here, since the starring foursome of Clark Kent, Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen, and Perry White–and their characteristic verbal interplay–had already been well-established by the Superman radio show on the Mutual network, giving the scripters a good template to follow (the Mutual show is significantly given equal billing alongside the Superman comics in the opening credits). In any case, Clark’s mild-mannered act, Lois’s sarcastic put-downs, Jimmy’s comically cocky antics, and White’s acerbic remarks make the dialogue sequences far more entertaining than those of most other serials.

Superman--Planet staff
Above, left to right: Pierre Watkin, Tommy Bond, Kirk Alyn, and Noel Neill in an animated discussion at the Planet.

The serial’s pace–thanks to the script and to strong work by directors Spencer Bennet and Thomas Carr–remains brisk throughout, moving the characters quickly through their paces and never bogging down into the lengthy, walk-from-point-A-to-point-B sequences that pad many other Katzman outings. This swift pacing helps to distract from the chapterplay’s biggest flaw–its almost complete lack of traditional serial action scenes, and its failure to replace them with anything in the way of interesting special effects. Superman, of course, fells his opponents with a single blow, while Clark (for strategic identity-concealing reasons) and the inept Jimmy are unable to hold their own for long in hand-to-hand combats.

Republic’s Adventures of Captain Marvel suffered from a similar lack of fights due to the invulnerability of its leading character, but that serial gave the audiences something else to thrill at–the utterly convincing effects that allowed the Captain to fly. Superman, on the other hand, is made to “fly” via cheap animation–which doesn’t destroy the serial as many have claimed, but does deal a substantial blow to the Superman-in-action scenes; instead of waiting excitedly for Superman to soar into the sky, we find ourselves hoping he’ll hit the ground again and not give us too much time to notice that he’s turned into a cartoon. Other bits of super-action (the Man of Steel’s tossing thugs around, lifting safes, ripping off doors, grinning while bullets bounce off him, stopping cars), while less theoretically spectacular than his flights through the sky, are much more appealing because rendered without the jarring animation.

Superman--cartoon Superman--car stop
Above: The cartoon Superman (left) and the live-action Superman (right) in action.

The serial’s chapter endings, on the other hand, are generally above Columbia’s too-abrupt norm, several of them being staged with more care than was usually shown in the studio’s outings. Clark Kent’s apparent decease from the effects of the Kryptonite at the end of Chapter Three is easily the most memorable and the most shocking, but Lois’ seeming electrocution by the Spider Lady in Chapter Four (well-foreshadowed by having a villain meet an identical fate a few minutes earlier), Jimmy’s Chapter Seven trip into an electric furnace, and the ray-blasting of Metropolis Prison in Chapter Fourteen, are also well-done. However, there are other, more typically abrupt chapter endings on hand as well (the fire sequence in Chapter Ten, the mine explosion in Chapter Twelve), as well as one outrageous and unnecessary cheat resolution (for the Chapter Eleven cliffhanger).

Superman--Kryptonite 1 Superman--Kryptonite 2 Superman--Kryptonite 3 Superman--Kryptonite 4
Above: Clark Kent’s first encounter with Kryptonite in the Chapter Three cliffhanger.

The serial’s locations alternate between the Columbia backlot–which furnishes suitably impressive buildings for the Daily Planet and for Metropolis University (where the ray machine is stored for awhile)–and the reliable Bronson Canyon area–both its winding roads, which do good service in a couple of car-chase sequences, and its famous cave, which functions as the entrance to the Spider Lady’s hideout. The Canyon region also figures as a backdrop to the action in other sequences, and is striking enough to even add a bit of visual interest to some of the aforementioned Superman-in-flight scenes.

Superman--Bronson Cave
Above: One of the villains’ vehicles emerges from Bronson Cave.

Along with the writing and pacing, the great asset of Superman is its stellar cast–which gives energy to even the script’s weaker bits of banter and helps bring conviction to the sci-fi scenario. Kirk Alyn does an outstanding job in the leading role; he manages to make Clark Kent seem both comic and shrewd, something no subsequent Superman portrayer ever pulled off. His owlishly deadpan manner, balanced with a cheerful slyness, makes his Kent a delight to watch. His Superman is excellent as well; Alyn affects a deeper, more authoritative voice in the role, but still gives the character an air of swashbuckling enthusiasm–grinning delightedly while bullets bounce off him and deriving obvious amusement from his feats of strength.

Noel Neill, full of attractively perky energy, is similarly terrific as Lois Lane, delivering her character’s irritable quips with great flair, but also managing to take the edge off Lois’ nasty treatment of Clark with her impish smile and her wryly humorous manner. Tommy Bond does a great job as a swaggering but bumbling Jimmy Olsen, eternally self-confident and eternally fallible, but completely likable throughout; his pantomime acting when he tries to lift up an unconscious thug in emulation of Superman is particularly funny. Pierre Watkin rounds out the good guys’ side as Perry White; although he never leaves the Daily Planet offices, he still lends a big boost to the serial, delivering sardonic wisecracks in dryly irritable fashion but coming off as tough and cagy as well as cranky.

The serial’s villains are strong too; Carol Forman, despite a ridiculous-looking blonde wig, manages to be menacing as the Spider Lady, veering from icy arrogance to frustrated rage to sneering exultation. Former leading man Charles Quigley matches her as the suave and cynical Dr. Hackett; their barbed interchanges–particularly their lengthy bout of bargaining in Chapter Fourteen–are great fun to watch. Slick, cold-voiced George Meeker, a veteran of B-films and serials, has one of his best chapterplay roles as Forman’s intelligent lieutenant.

Above: Charles Quigley and Carol Forman.

Columbia stalwart Jack Ingram, grouchy and sarcastic as ever, heads up the other henchmen, ably abetted by Terry Frost, Charles King, and Rusty Wescoatt throughout the serial. Other villainous standbys like Stanley Price, Leonard Penn, Reed Howes, and Eddie Parker pop up in single scenes. Frank Lackteen has a colorful part as a stool pigeon named Hawkins; although the character name is absolutely ridiculous when attached to the Lebanese Lackteen, his sinisterly shifty performance is very entertaining.

One of the good guys’ side, Ed Cassidy and Virginia Carroll convey just the right amount of down-to-earth rural honesty as the Kents, while thoughtful-looking, deep-voiced Nelson Leigh is similarly ideal as Jor-El. Former serial and B-western heroine Luana Walters plays Jor-El’s wife Lara but is given no dialogue. Robert Barron is the head of Krypton’s council, but I was unable to identify the actor who plays Jor-El’s most vocal Council opponent (and does a fine job in the role, incidentally, rendering flowery dialogue with gusto). As usual, the Internet Movie Database is no help in identification here.

Bustling, briskly authoritative Emmett Vogan is the “Secretary of National Security” who asks Superman to guard the Reducer Ray, while the venerable Herbert Rawlinson has a very good role as the Ray’s inventor Dr. Graham, a part which allows him to be dignified, despairing, mesmerized, heroic, and even villainous (when playing Hackett-disguised-as-Graham) by turns. Forrest Taylor is his usual assured and entertaining self as an observatory scientist, while Stephen Carr (director Thomas Carr’s brother) is merely adequate as Taylor’s treacherous assistant.

Peggy Wynne has a few amusing bits as the Daily Planet switchboard girl; as a side note, the Planet’s newsroom is full of unexpected but welcome extra players who really help maintain the illusion of the paper as one of Metropolis’s leading dailies. Gene Roth pops up as a conductor, William Fawcett as a fake newsboy, I. Stanford Jolley as a jailer, and Frank Ellis as a mine guard. Mason Alan Dinehart and Ralph Hodges play young Clark Kent at different ages, veteran villain Wheeler Oakman is a non-villainous mineralogist, and Tom London has a great bit as a gabby old geezer in Chapter Two. Two other old pros, Jimmy Aubrey and Edmund Cobb, have much smaller bits as (respectively) a puzzled radio operator and a perplexed gas station attendant.

Superman’s musical accompaniment (assembled and directed by Mischa Bakaleinikoff) is decidedly better than that of most of its Columbia contemporaries; though it features some of Katzman’s favorite borrowed pieces (most notably the theme from the Columbia Western Relentless, which pops up in almost every post-1948 Columbia serial) it also has some excellent cues that were either written especially for the serial or else selected from other sources with special care; Superman’s flight theme and the eerie music that accompanies each appearance of the Kryptonite are especially memorable.

Superman succeeds far more than one might expect, given the general quality of Columbia’s releases during the late 1940s; the infamous animation effects are ultimately overcome by the work of the actors, directors, and writers, all of whom go well beyond the cost-conscious and anemic call of Katzmanian duty in this outing.


10 thoughts on “Superman

  1. Dan,
    Liked the review,not the serial. I saw this serial first run in 1948. Unlike most serials , this was shown at a theater showing first run features mainly Universals and Columbias. I eagerly awaited this one as I did most serials. Having saw Adventures of Captain Marvel in 1941, I was very disapointed to see a cheap animated Superman in the flight scenes. Perhaps im judging this point too harshly, but I was so impressed with the superior Marvel flying effects that it clouded some other good points including Kirk Alyns performance.Earlier I said I didn’t like the serial. Thats not exactly correct. I liked the live action sequences but not the jarring cartoonish flying scenes. Nit picking aside, Superman rates 3 out of 5 in my book.

  2. I liked the review and the serial. Well, the flying scenes are an obvious weakness, but watching it a second time, I was impressed with the cast. Kirk Alyn grew on me. He is a terrific Clark Kent and I really liked his Superman. Noel Neill, Tommy Bond, and Pierre Watkins were top flight. Jack Larson came across as a preppy Jimmy in the TV series. Bond comes across as a street kid working his way up, probably an advantage in action scenes. They got some colorful actors in the supporting roles, and the Spider Lady is an okay main villain. The thugs were a great bunch. My only criticism of the cast is that Meeker and Quigley came across as just another couple of middle-aged guys with moustaches, like the thugs. Possibly different physical types, especially as the scientist, might have been a good idea. Still, one of my favorite Columbias. **** out of *****

  3. Much as I enjoy Fleischer animation in its own right, I would choose exactly the same word as you to describe its use here: jarring. And it’s not just the flight sequences, but other “super” effects. However, even with some laughably cheap production values and with what we’re expected to swallow in many scenes, the serial overall is delightful. Kirk Alyn is still possibly the best Superman and Clark Kent on screen, and the rest of the cast did very well. The stunt fights are excellent in nearly every case; you can slow them down and in the side shots see blows come VERY close to landing. You can laugh along as you mentally complete Clark Kent’s line to his father concerning the use of his powers, “I know what you’re going to say…. [I’ve read the comics too],” because you know that’s what they were all thinking. The Spider Lady’s interplay with the scientist and her henchmen is especially good.

    Unfortunately “Atom Man Vs. Superman” was overall not as good as this one, with most of the cast seeming to mail that one in, and is saved only by the play of the best Luthor ever, Lyle Talbot.

  4. I found “Atom Man Vs. Superman” to be superior to this first effort. The second serial, in my humble opinion, is faster, tighter, and benefits from a far better super criminal- Lex Luthor, of course. Nonetheless, “Superman” is indeed a lot of fun. Far better than books like “The Great Serial Heroes” would have you believe (Yes, it’s NOT the “Adventures Of Captain Marvel,” but so what!). Like a lot of my good Columbia serials, so much is benefited from a good dose of humor and likable characters.

    It’s also fun to see how much this compares to the “Adventures of Superman” TV show. I give Kirk kudos for being the first on-screen man of steel, however,George Reeves, as you may agree, owns the role. Kirk Alyn made a great Clark Kent but his Superman was at times too campy. I wish directors Spencer Bennett and Thomas Carr had dialed down Kirk a bit. The over-exaggerated posture, the prancing (from Alyn’s dance training), the forced, lower register of his voice, and, goofy, wide-eyed expression when Superman enacts his x-ray vision all make the actor look like a guy performing at a kid’s birthday bash. George Reeves only had to walk into room, but his hands on his hip, and we were sold!

    One more thing that slowly dawned on me: Noel Neill is hot!

  5. George Reeves played the role DIFFERENTLY, but I’d disagree that he was BETTER. Often he seemed supercilious, with the impression that he was above the roles of both Clark Kent and Superman, while with Kirk Alyn there was a sense of energy & enthusiasm. Partly as a result, “The Adventures of Superman” had the flattest transitions ever seen or heard between Clark Kent & Superman, as if they weren’t different at all; that did help the gag, however, of nobody’s ever catching on. (he best of that was the blind child who remarked that Superman sounded like Mr. Kent.)

    An interesting thing I didn’t notice about “The Adventures of Superman” until I looked at it a while with a critical eye is that the shots were blocked temporo-spatially to look like comic book frames, which is not an impression I got from the serials.

    • I have to concede that George Reeves looked tired and aged in the last batch of color episodes. There was a palabale lack of energy in his performance. And yes, Reeves didn’t differentiate Clark Kent and Superman like Kirk Allyn did. In fact, Allyn does pull of the best subterfuge of all the on-screen Superman actors.

  6. I hope I’m not going too far afield with this comment for this site, but as long as we’re discussing Superman serials…I had a vain hope years ago that the “Smallville” TV series would do an episode in the style of a ca. 1950 B&W sci-fi/space opera. I watched that show for the 1st 3 seasons for completely different reasons: I like Gough & Millar’s work with “Shanghai Noon” and gathered from the posters that “Smallville” would drip with irony and inside jokes. I was not disappointed for the 1st 2 seasons (i.e. before Millar & Gough left it to others), which the makers used largely as a vehicle for retelling other stories, fictional & non-fictional, in cute symbolic or allusive form — everything from Prometheus to the Kennedys. I would watch an episode, watch it again & crack up at the gags I’d missed previously, most of which few viewers probably got. Anyway, after they showed a predilection for “theme” episodes, I wanted them to do one in the style I described, telling the “real” story of the destruction of Krypton behind the DC Comics “propaganda”: that, far from being the peace-loving kind they’d have you believe, Kryptonians were aggressors around the universe…until they messed with one civiliz’n too many and…kapow! But there’s too much devotion now to the DC mythos, and the kiddie demographic “Smallville” was pitched to wouldn’t’ve gotten it. The kids would’ve had some vague sense the show was being done in some unrecognizable style that they’d’ve considered cheap & dumb rather than a brilliant pastiche.

  7. The success of this serial rests totally on the cast. Kirk Alyn was perfectly cast in the lead role and he remains my favorite live action Superman. Noel Neill was a much better Lois in this and AMVSM as the writing in the serials was superior to the rather childish rendering of the characters in the television series. Tommie Bond, Pierre Watkin,Charles Quigley, and the lovely Carol Foreman (who doesn’t love a super villianess with a southern drawl?) all contribute to make this one a wonderful viewing experience.
    Having said that, yes the flying effects were terrible and mar the entire production. I thought the other effects were fine, on part with the similar “super stunts” in Adventures of Captain Marvel. I guess one could argue what they find more irratating, Sam Katzman’s abiding cheapness or Republic’s tendency to make wholesale changes with proven properties.
    While this film could have been better, the crew of fine actors make it good enough. And, after all, it is Superman!

  8. I avoided watching this serial (and its sequel) for a long time, mainly because of all the negative comments regarding the flying sequences. Having finally seen both productions, I found that I underestimated my dislike of the use of animated effects. I was afraid that it would look cheap and be generally distracting to the narrative, but that I would be able ignore those issues, and enjoy the serials on their own merits. Having now seen both stories, in my view the overall effect was much worse, not merely jarring but absolutely ridiculous. It reminded me of watching Mighty Mouse instead of Superman. Eventually, I just took the approach of looking away from the screen while the sequences played.

    My other problem was the casting of Kirk Alyn in the lead role. I know that it’s a matter of personal preference, but he was one of my least favorite serial leading men. I definitely agree with the previous poster (Chris). For want of a better word, Alyn always did seem a trifle “goofy”, and for me lacked the acting chops and the seriousness that this role ( and others that he played) required.

  9. After sending the above posting, I had some second thoughts about my previous comments, so I decided to watch both “Superman” serials again with a more open mind, and in all fairness, I was definitely too harsh in my first assessment. Both did have their positive aspects, and certainly didn’t warrant the slamming that I gave them. Mea culpa.

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